Consequences of obesity on Oral Tissues
Posted on 26th February 2017 at 15:34
A stretch relationship have been established between obesity and oral health in the past. Several studies have determined that adipose tissue can influence the intensity and resolution of inflammatory response in multiple tissues. Including bone and gingival mucosa. The final outcome of this metabolic response, clinically manifest as an increased risk of chronic periodontitis, this have been reported several times in the literature.
This year, the Journal of Dental Research published in its January issue a new prospective cohort study about this matter, by H.F. Saloom, S.N. Papageorgiou, G.H. Carpenter, and M.T. Cobourne from the Department of Orthodontics, Mucosal and salivary biology, King’s College London Dental Institute with collaboration of the Clinic of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich.
In this study, the researchers linked this issue with orthodontics movement. In their project design they included 55 patients with a mean (SD) age of 15.1 (1.7) years. Based on their BMI they classify each participants in two groups, normal-weight group and the obese group. Apart from BMI, there were no statistically significant differences in demographics among groups at baseline. Their primary outcome indicated a small difference in time required to achieve tooth alignment between obese and normal-weight patients (after 1 week of initial alignment). However, tooth alignment rate from week 1 to completion of alignment was not significantly different between groups. Although during the treatment and before the second outcome, obese patients were associated with a significantly increased rate of tooth movement throughout the whole study duration compared with normal weight patients.
This difference was associated by the authors to several factors. The first one: the obese group had a significantly increased initial mechanical displacement of the teeth during the first week following the application of orthodontic force. The second one, the most important was detectable within gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), in baseline GCF parameters between groups were different, including GCF flow rate and levels of several biomarkers. The proinflammatory adipokines leptin and resistin were both elevated in the GCF of obese patients, suggestive of a baseline proinflammatory state within the periodontium of these individuals.
In the conclusion stated by the author, "This represents the first prospective data demonstrating a different response in obese patients compared with normal-weight patients during early orthodontic treatment. These differences in the response of periodontal tissues to orthodontic force in the presence of obesity have potential short- and long-term clinical implications".
What do you think about this research?. Do you have any experience with your patients or any related investigation you want to share with the rest of Oral Fitness Community? Leave your comment below.
Share this post: